Ahrar al-Sham al-Nusra al-Qaeda Bashar al-Assad Caeser Act Civil Resistance Civil War Conflict Counter-Terrorism Democratic Union Party (PYD) Energy Sector Foreign Investment Free Syrian Army Hayat Tahrir al-Sham Humanitarian Aid Industrial Organisation Infrastructure Islamic State Jaish Khalid bin al-Walid Kurdish Groups Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) Land and Property Restitution Militarisation Operation Peace Spring People’s Protection Units (YPG) Post-War Recovery Rebel Groups Rebuild Syria Conference Reconstruction Refugees Sanctions Southeastern Anatolia Project Syrian Democratic Forces Turkish Strategy Uprising
Yahia H. Zoubir
The main shift in Russia’s Middle East policy, upgraded since 2015, has been a move away from Western-centeredness towards more active engagement with, and balancing between, regional actors. The article explores the benefits, costs and risks associated with such regionalisation for Moscow, outlines key interests pursued by Russia in view of its new regional role and analyses its implications for Europe. It tries to explain why, despite the EU’s more balanced approach to the Middle East, the space for Russia-Europe cooperation in the region appears even more limited than that with the United States and identifies a few areas of confluence of interest and potential cooperation.