The Journal for politics, economics, and culture of the Middle East published by the German Orient-Institute





Lost in Iranoia: Saudi Arabia’s struggle for regional hegemony in times of crisis

Saudi Arabia and Iran have been seeking regional supremacy due to political and ideological reasons since the Iranian Revolution in 1979. Since 2011, these bilateral tensions have intensified with destabilising effects in Syria, Yemen and Bahrain. Saudi Arabia’s foreign policy is influenced by ‘Iranoia’, which aims to counter the Iranian influence within the Arab region and to preserve the Saudi standing as a political and economic regional power as well as a religious role model. However, since the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPoA), Saudi Arabia has felt further betrayed by traditional allies such as the United States. The new Saudi leadership is concerned about the re-integration of Iran into the international community and thus has intensified its anti-Iran and anti-Shiite propaganda and policy in recent years. The article analyses the main foreign policy interests of Saudi Arabia, the anti-Iran strategy of the new leadership under King Salman, and the negative outcomes of this policy, such as sectarian divide and the detrimental consequences for regional stability.

Sebastian Sons is a Ph.D. candidate at the Humboldt University of Berlin and an Associate Fellow at the Near east and North Africa Research Program of the German Council of Foreign Relations in Berlin. Previously, he worked as Head of Research Unit at the German Orient-Institute. His fields of interests are Saudi Arabia’s foreign policy, societal change and economic developments.

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ORIENT III 2016: 5 years into the Arab Uprisings – Reforms and Transformations

Mohammed A. Bamyeh
The Arab Spring: Five years later

Larbi Sadiki
Arab ‘Parliamentarisation’ in the Arab Spring context: The normative vs. the practical

Max Hänska
Social media and the Arab Spring: How communication technology shapes socio-political change

Anders C. Härdig
MENA civil society post-Arab Spring

Edward Webb
Five years later: Directions in censorship and media freedom

Ilyas Saliba
Change or Charade? Morocco’s constitutional reform process 2011

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ORIENT II 2016: Salafism in the Near and Middle East

Farid Hafez
Salafism: A historical approach

Roel Meijer
Salafism and the challenge of modern politics

Khalil Al-Anani
Political Salafism in Egypt

Ashraf El Sherif
Revolutionary Islamists and the politics of wait and desperation in Egypt

Joas Wagemakers
Salafi scholarly views on gender-mixing (ikhtilāṭ) in Saudi Arabia

Anouar Boukhars
The politics of North African Salafism

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ORIENT I 2016: The regional refugee crisis in the Middle East – causes, current challenges and perspectives

Luigi Achilli
Back to Syria? Conflicting patterns of mobility among Syrian refugees in Jordan

Rabih Shibli
Syrian refugees in Lebanon

Mona Christophersen
Jordan and the Syrian refugees

Maysa Ayoub
The situation of the Syrian refugees in Egypt

Kılıç Buǧra Kanat
Turkey’s Syrian refugees

Ömer Karasapan
Syria’s displaced women and girls

AKM Ahsan Ullah
Refugee mobility: causes and perspective in the Middle East

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ORIENT IV 2015: Regional powers and conflict in the Middle East

Julien Barnes-Dacey
Proxy wars: the regional struggle for Syria and Iraq

Mohammed Ayoob
Elucidating conflict structures in the Middle East

Robert Mason
US, EU and Russian Middle East policy

Adam Baron
Yemen: a proxy war?

Wolfgang Pusztai
Libya: another conflict without solution?

Curtis R. Ryan
Jordan in the crossfire of Middle East conflicts

Rayan Haddad
Shifting from consensus on Iraq to agonistic struggle over Syria

Florence Gaub
Middle Eastern multipolarity in movement

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ORIENT III 2015: Political developments in Israel and Palestine

Margret Johannsen
Seeking recognition: Palestinian state-building beyond Oslo

Ilan Pappé
The search for a new paradigm: Past and present critical trends in Israeli historiography

Omar Shaban
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Peter Lintl
Understanding coalition formation in Israel: Party positions and cleavages in light of the 2015 election

Michael Borchard
Waking up with Bibi: How stable is the Israeli government?

Benedetta Berti
The evolving role of Hamas: Recasting labels?

Gerald M. Steinberg
Conflict or conflict management in Israeli-Palestinian relations?

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ORIENT II 2015: Political developments in Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia

Frédéric Volpi
The Arab Uprisings and the political trajectories of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia

Alexander Peter Martin
Agents of change: Civil society in post-revolutionary Tunisia

Francesco Cavatorta and Marie-Eve Desrosiers
State-society relations in Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia

Abdeslam Maghraoui
The stabilising effect of turbulence in authoritarian regimes
How the Moroccan monarchy ducked the Arab Spring

Michael Bauer
Tunisia, Egypt and Morocco: Precarious stabilisation under different circumstances

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ORIENT I 2015: Turkish foreign policy – Iraq, Syria and the Kurds in the region

Dr. Philip Robins
Turkey’s foreign policy in the Middle East: Swimming out of its depth?

Prof. Dr. Raymond Hinnebusch
Back to enmity: Turkey-Syria relations since the Syrian Uprising

Dr. Özlem Tür
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Turkey in the Middle East: Ideals and realities

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Salih Dogan and Mustafa Demir
Turkey’s policy in Iraq and its effect on the struggle with the PKK

Bill Park
Turkey’s dual relationship with Iraq
Ankara, Baghdad and Erbil

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ORIENT IV 2014: Iraq

Dr. Reidar Visser
Shiite Politics in Iraqi Government Formation, 2006-2014

Dr. Christoph Günther
Obey the emerging caliphate: The ideological framework of the “Islamic State” in Iraq and the Levant

PD Dr. habil Gülistan Gürbey
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Ali Fathollah-Nejad
Iran’s Policy towards Post-Saddam Iraq

Dr. Achim Rohde
Ruining a Country: The Politics of Ethno-Sectarian Divisions in Iraq

Professor Dr. Ferhad Ibrahim Seyder
The IS War in Kurdistan

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ORIENT III 2014: Afghanistan

Meena Singh Roy and Dr. Christian Wagner
Political Transition in Afghanistan: Imperatives for India and Pakistan

Dr. Katja Mielke
What inhibits and enables Afghans’ social mobility? On the limits of community organization and mobilization in Afghanistan

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Presidential Elections 2014 – A Game Changer for Afghanistan’s Development Perspectives?

Philipp Münch and Thomas Ruttig
Between Negotiations and Ongoing Resistance: The Situation of the Afghan Insurgency

Adrienne Woltersdorf
Die afghanische Zivilgesellschaft und die Gewerkschaften

Dr. Farhan Mujahid Chak
Islam, the West and ‘Man’ in the State of Nature

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ORIENT II 2014: Iran

Professor Dr. Roswitha Badry
Reflections of an Outsider on the Current Situation of pro-Women’s Rights Activism in Iran

Dr. Nadia von Maltzahn
One Side of the Coin: The Official Sphere of Syrian-Iranian Cultural Relations

Sasan Aghlani
A House Built on Sand: Rouhani’s Approach to the Nuclear Issue from a Critical Perspective

Dr. Wahied Wahdat-Hagh
Limits of religious freedom in Iran: persecution of Baha’i

Dr. Bianca Devos
Iran’s Cultural Policy under the Pahlavis, 1925-1979

Dr. Mostafa Dolatyar
Rouhani’s Administration: a chance for the West to change its foreign policy paradigm

Dr. Bernd Kaussler
Giving Diplomacy a Chance: US-Iranian Relations and the Joint Plan of Action

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ORIENT I 2014: Turkey

Professor Hamit Bozarslan
The Kurdish issue in Turkey of 2010’s

Dr. Yasar Aydin
Reflections on the Gezi Park Protests in Turkey – Socio-Political Factors and Subjective Motives

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Zwischen autoritärer Staatsführung und begrenzter Demokratisierung: Erdogan’s „Demokratisierungspaket“

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Turkey’s Ergenekon Inquiry: Democratisation or Witch-Hunt?

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Gezi and the Kurds in Turkey: Some Reflections on the Future of the peace process

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Reflections on Modern Turkish History

Ludwig Schulz and Benedikt van den Woldenberg
Adapting to a World in Change: Lessons to JDP Foreign Policy from the ‘Arab Uprisings’

Dietmar Nietan, Member of the German Bundestag
Germany, the EU and Turkey: Together, there is much more to achieve!

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